Square Groove Weld Symbols: A Guide to Understanding and Interpreting

Square Groove Weld Symbol Square groove welding is a widely used welding joint type used in the sheet metal fabrication as well as high arc energy density welding process (SAW, PAW, LBW, EBW) square butt …

Square Groove Weld Symbols

Square Groove Weld Symbol

Square groove welding is a widely used welding joint type used in the sheet metal fabrication as well as high arc energy density welding process (SAW, PAW, LBW, EBW) square butt joints. These symbols provide a standardized way to indicate the type and size of weld required for a specific joint.

In this article, we will discuss the different aspects of square groove welding symbols, how to interpret them correctly, including their meaning, types, and applications.

Whether you’re a welding professional, engineer, or simply interested in the world of welding, this guide will help you demystify square groove welding symbols and enhance your understanding of this vital aspect of welding communication.

What is a Square Groove Weld?

A square groove weld is a type of weld joint where a groove or channel with square edges is prepared on the edges of the base metal pieces to be joined. This groove provides a space for the weld filler material to be deposited, resulting in a complete joint penetration (CJP) weld joint. The square groove weld is commonly used when high strength and complete joint penetration are required.

There are three types of Square Groove Welds:

  1. Single side Square Groove weld without Backing,
  2. Single side Square Groove weld with Backing,
  3. Single side Square Groove welded from both sides.

To create a square groove weld, the edges of the base metal pieces are prepared by machining, grinding, or other methods to form a square-shaped channel groove without any weld bevel. The groove is typically prepared with uniform dimensions, such as equal depth and width on both sides as shown in below figure. 

See also  Butt Welding: Understanding Types, Sizes, and Strength

Square Groove Weld Symbol

Square groove welding symbols are used to represent weld joints that require a square groove preparation. A square groove weld symbol contains two parallel vertical lines placed on the reference line have specific significance on each side of the arrow.

In below example, 2 vertical line placed on reference line represents Square Weld Symbol. Note that Square Weld Symbol is a Basic Weld Symbol.

  • 0.25: Weld Size (Given on left side of weld symbol.
  • 6.5: Weld Length (Given on right side of weld symbol.
  • 8.5: Distance between 2 welds, if making intermittent welds.
  • AW: Tail section to give additional information.

The two parallel vertical lines on the reference line, along with the arrow and the other side, specify the square groove joint .

Let’s break down the meaning of each side:

  1. Arrow Side:
    The side of the symbol where the arrow is pointing represents the “arrow side” or the side of the joint where the weld is to be made. It indicates the location where the weld bead is to be deposited. The arrow typically points towards the joint or the area where the weld is required.
  2. Other Side:
    The side opposite the arrow represents the “other side” or the side of the joint that does not require welding. It indicates that no weld bead is to be deposited on this side of the joint.
See also  Understanding the Scarf Groove Weld Symbol

It is important to note that the dimensions, weld type, and other specifications related to the square groove weld are typically indicated within the symbol or provided in accompanying notes or specifications. These details may include groove dimensions, root opening, weld depth, and any additional requirements for the weld joint.

Below are example of two Square Groove Weld symbol from left to right:

  1. Both side Square Groove Weld.
  2. Single side Square Groove Weld with Backing.

ISO Symbol for Square Groove Weld

ISO Symbol for square groove weld is similar to AWS weld symbol. Below is an example of Partial Penetration weld on Square groove weld on both sides.

The weld size or depth of weld as mentioned earlier is specified on the left side of weld symbol as 10 & 6 respectively for arrow side and other side weld. Root Gap if applicable is specified between the vertical lines.

Components of Square Groove Welding Symbols

To effectively interpret square groove welding symbols, it is important to understand the key components within the symbol. These components include the reference line, arrow, groove dimensions, and supplementary symbols. Each of these elements provides essential information about the weld joint, such as the groove angle, root opening, and weld depth.

Conclusion

Square groove welding symbols are essential for clear communication and accurate interpretation of weld joint requirements. Understanding these symbols enables welders, fabricators, and engineers to produce welds that meet the specified standards and design intent.

See also  Fillet Weld Symbol

By grasping the components and interpretation methods of square groove welding symbols, professionals in the welding industry can ensure successful and high-quality welds, contributing to the overall success of welding projects.


Kumar is a highly experienced welding professional and author known for his expertise in welding symbols. With certifications including IWE, AWS-CWI, and ASNT NDT Level III.