Plumbing Symbols

What are Plumbing Symbols? Plumbing symbols are graphical representations used in plumbing and piping systems to convey information about the layout, connections, and components of the system. These symbols are standardized and commonly used in …

Plumbing-Symbols

What are Plumbing Symbols?

Plumbing symbols are graphical representations used in plumbing and piping systems to convey information about the layout, connections, and components of the system. These symbols are standardized and commonly used in plumbing engineering, architectural drawings, and technical documentation.

They help communicate the design and installation details of plumbing systems to plumbers, contractors, and other professionals involved in construction and maintenance.

Common Plumbing Symbols

There are various types of plumbing symbols used in plumbing and piping systems. Here are some commonly used types:

  1. Pipe Symbols: These symbols represent different types of pipes, such as water supply pipes, drain pipes, vent pipes, and their variations, including straight pipes, curved pipes, vertical pipes, horizontal pipes, and pipe connections.
  2. Fitting Symbols: These symbols represent pipe fittings, including elbows, tees, crosses, reducers, couplings, unions, valves, and other components that connect and control the flow of water or other fluids within the plumbing system.
  3. Fixture Symbols: These symbols represent plumbing fixtures and appliances, such as sinks, toilets, bathtubs, showers, faucets, water heaters, and other devices connected to the plumbing system.
  4. Valve Symbols: These symbols represent different types of valves used in plumbing systems, including gate valves, ball valves, check valves, pressure relief valves, control valves, and thermostatic valves. They indicate the position, operation, and flow control of the valves.
  5. Specialized Symbols: There are specialized symbols for specific plumbing features, such as backflow preventers, grease traps, cleanouts, floor drains, vents, water meters, pumps, expansion tanks, and other components or devices used in plumbing systems.
  6. Abbreviations and Annotations: Plumbing symbols may also include abbreviations and annotations to provide additional information about pipe sizes, materials, flow directions, connection points, and other details relevant to the plumbing system.

These symbols are standardized and commonly used in plumbing drawings, blueprints, and technical documentation to convey information about the design, installation, and maintenance of plumbing systems. They help ensure clear communication among professionals involved in plumbing and construction projects.

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Plumbing Symbols on Blueprints and Drawings

Here are some of the more advanced plumbing symbols commonly utilized by contractors in commercial and industrial settings. Initially, we’ll begin with straightforward descriptions of plumbing fixtures, which assist us in understanding their placement within residential structures.

Following the fixtures, such as sinks and baths, it becomes crucial to determine the appropriate types of plumbing lines to be installed.

Plumbing piping symbols

Plumbing piping symbols are graphical representations used to depict different types of pipes, connections, and components in plumbing systems. These symbols help communicate the layout, direction of flow, and connection points of pipes in a clear and standardized manner.

Here are some commonly used plumbing piping symbols:

  1. Straight Pipe: Represents a straight section of pipe without any bends or fittings.
  2. Curved Pipe: Represents a curved section of pipe, indicating changes in direction or flow.
  3. Vertical Pipe: Represents a vertical section of pipe, indicating pipes running vertically.
  4. Horizontal Pipe: Represents a horizontal section of pipe, indicating pipes running horizontally.
  5. Pipe Connection: Represents the connection point between two pipes, typically depicted as a T or a cross symbol.
  6. Pipe Bend: Represents a bend or elbow in a pipe, indicating a change in direction.
  7. Pipe Intersection: Represents the intersection of multiple pipes.
  8. Pipe Reducer: Represents a reduction in pipe size, usually depicted as a tapered section.
  9. Pipe Expansion Joint: Represents a flexible joint or expansion joint used to accommodate thermal expansion in pipes.
  10. Valve: Represents different types of valves used in plumbing systems, such as gate valves, ball valves, or check valves.
  11. Pipe Tee: Represents a T-shaped fitting used to connect three pipes together.
  12. Pipe Cross: Represents a cross-shaped fitting used to connect four pipes together.

Plumbing fitting symbols

Plumbing fitting symbols are graphical representations used to depict various types of fittings or connectors in plumbing systems. These symbols help convey the specific type, shape, and function of the fitting in a standardized manner. Here are some commonly used plumbing fitting symbols:

  1. Elbow: Represents a fitting that allows for a change in direction in a pipe, typically at a 90-degree angle.
  2. Tee: Represents a T-shaped fitting used to connect three pipes together at right angles.
  3. Cross: Represents a cross-shaped fitting used to connect four pipes together at right angles.
  4. Coupling: Represents a fitting used to join two pipes together in a straight line.
  5. Union: Represents a fitting that allows for the easy disconnection and reconnection of pipes.
  6. Reducer: Represents a fitting that connects pipes of different sizes, typically with one end larger than the other.
  7. Cap: Represents a fitting used to close off the end of a pipe.
  8. Plug: Represents a fitting used to seal an opening in a pipe or fitting.
  9. Flange: Represents a flat, circular fitting with mounting holes used to connect pipes or equipment.
  10. Valve: Represents different types of valves used in plumbing systems, such as gate valves, ball valves, check valves, or globe valves.
  11. Trap: Represents a fitting used to prevent the passage of sewer gases back into a building, typically used in drain lines.
  12. Nipple: Represents a short length of pipe with male threads on both ends, used for connecting two female-threaded fittings.

Plumbing Valves symbols

Here are some commonly used plumbing valve symbols:

  1. Gate Valve: It is represented by a rectangle with a diagonal line across it, indicating the gate that can be raised or lowered to control the flow of water.
  2. Ball Valve: It is represented by a circle with an intersecting line, resembling a ball and stem. It indicates a valve that uses a rotating ball to control the flow.
  3. Globe Valve: It is represented by a circle with a small bulge and a stem extending from it. It indicates a valve with a globe-shaped structure that controls flow through a movable disk.
  4. Check Valve: It is represented by an arrow pointing in the direction of flow with a curved line joining it. It indicates a valve that allows flow in one direction and prevents backflow in the opposite direction.
  5. Butterfly Valve: It is represented by a circle with a curved line across it, resembling butterfly wings. It indicates a valve with a disc that rotates to control flow.
  6. Pressure Relief Valve: It is represented by a circle with a triangular shape on top. It indicates a valve used to relieve excess pressure in a system.
  7. Pressure Reducing Valve: It is represented by a circle with a square on top and a diagonal line crossing the square. It indicates a valve that reduces the pressure of the fluid passing through it.
  8. Solenoid Valve: It is represented by a rectangle with a diagonal line and a coil symbol inside. It indicates an electrically controlled valve that opens or closes based on an electrical signal.
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Plumbing Symbols Chart

Plumbing Symbols Chart works a guide to read & learn Plumbing Symbols. Click here to download Plumbing Symbols Chart pdf file. Also, for your reference, here are some plumbing symbols:

  1. Pipe Symbols:
    • Straight Pipe
    • Curved Pipe
    • Vertical Pipe
    • Horizontal Pipe
    • Pipe Connection (T or Cross symbol)
    • Pipe Bend (Elbow)
  2. Fitting Symbols:
    • Elbow (90-degree or other angles)
    • Tee (T-shaped fitting)
    • Cross (Cross-shaped fitting)
    • Coupling (Straight pipe connector)
    • Union (Allows easy disconnection)
    • Reducer (Connects pipes of different sizes)
    • Cap (Closes off the end of a pipe)
    • Plug (Seals an opening)
    • Flange (Flat, circular fitting with mounting holes)
  3. Valve Symbols:
    • Gate Valve
    • Ball Valve
    • Check Valve
    • Globe Valve
    • Butterfly Valve
  4. Fixture Symbols:
    • Sink
    • Toilet
    • Bathtub
    • Shower
    • Faucet
    • Water Heater
  5. Specialized Symbols:
    • Backflow Preventer
    • Grease Trap
    • Cleanout
    • Floor Drain
    • Vent Pipe
    • Water Meter
    • Pump
    • Expansion Tank

These symbols are commonly used in plumbing drawings and blueprints to represent the layout, connections, and components of plumbing systems. 


Sandeep Kumar is a highly experienced welding professional and author known for his expertise in welding symbols. With certifications including IWE, AWS-CWI, and ASNT NDT Level III.